Comparison of different genotype encodings for simulated 3D agents 
TitleComparison of different genotype encodings for simulated 3D agents
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2001
AuthorsKomosinski, M, Rotaru-Varga, A
JournalArtificial Life Journal
Date PublishedFall
KeywordsAgents, AL, Body and Brain evol., Genetics, Simulation, Theory

This paper analyzes the effect of different genetic encodings used for evolving 3D agents with physical morphologies. The complex phenotypes used in such systems often require nontrivial encodings. Different encodings used in Framsticks - a system for evolving 3D agents - are presented. These include a low-level direct mapping and two higher-level encodings: a recurrent and a developmental one. Quantitative results are presented from three simple optimization tasks (active height, passive height, and locomotion speed). The low-level encoding produced solutions of lower fitness than the two higher-level encodings under similar conditions. Results from recurrent and developmental encodings had similar fitness values but displayed qualitative differences. Desirable advantages and some drawbacks of more complex encodings are established.