This page describes a study of one of many speed-oriented evolution runs. Studying evolution is possible because the simulator can periodically save a gene pool state. Thus we keep track of changes in populations during the evolutionary process. Sometimes it is hard to find the first species with some property, because such a species is usually created between saved "snapshots". This is analogous to the problems of biologists examining fossil records and the punctuated equilibrium phenomenon.
Note that this experiment was performed a long time ago and now the following creatures would behave differently due to improvements in simulation. However, you can see their original movement in these movies: 3.3 MB or in high quality: 20 MB. Refer to the publications to read in detail about current research and results.
One of the first species which had a moving leg controlled by a touch (T) receptor. You can find parts of the older ways of locomotion in its genotype. It does not move efficiently, in fact it is merely creeping.
|Genotype:||rrCCii(rXX[| T :379.564],r(rXX[@ 0 :-3.182][| G :1.749],X[| 0 :-135.911,G :0.878]),X)|
|Avg. horizontal speed:||0.002|
After some evolution: the construction and neural network have been cleared from redundant parts. Still not very stable, sometimes drags its "head" on the ground.
|Genotype:||rCCirCCii(rXX[| T :379.564],rrX,X)|
|Avg. horizontal speed:||0.006|
A bit improved: walking. One neuron, one receptor, one muscle. Touching the ground with the receptor causes bending of a leg. The leg is straightened when the receptor does not touch anything.
Quite a good, one-leg creature. The control system has been changed during the evolution, the leg was elongated, the organism is more stable, has some redundant neurons.
|Genotype:||((rrrLCCCCCFMssswXX[@ 1 :0.064][| T :761.506,1 :3.962,0 :1.984,0 :1.382],),X,LLMX[@ / :-2.806,0 :834.492])|
|Avg. horizontal speed:||0.017|
The first creature with two "legs"! Their coordination is very poor, although the creature is faster than the one with single leg only.
|Genotype:||(,,MX[@ 1 :-4.017][ 5 :-539.560,G :2.916][ 4 :2.453,4:0.334](LCCMw(rrrLCFFssssssXFX[| -1 :-4.817][ -3 :1.703][| T :496.146,1:-2.326,-4 :-4.752],fX,),rrrrLLLLLLCCCCC(rrrLLCCCFFMsssssswXFX[| -1:-4.817][ -3 :1.703][| T :496.146,1 :-2.326,-4 :0.337],fX,),rrwX[ 0:1.632,* :1.533,-1 :-792.298]))|
|Avg. horizontal speed:||0.03|
After some evolution: the best two-legged creature. Now the coordination of legs is perfect: one is pushing back, the other is pulling.
|Genotype:||(,rLMX[ 7 :2.769,! :1.000](LCCMMw(rrrLCFFssssssX[ @0 :-1.132,*:-2.232]CFX[ @! :0.137][| -3 :-2.220][ |/ :-0.823,-2 :0.967,* :1.697][| T:407.734],RcfX,),rrrrrrrLLLLCCCCCCCMsssssswXFX[ ! :1.000][| -2 :-4.430,G:-0.840][ -1 :-3.255],fWXwX[ @! :1.000]))|
|Avg. horizontal speed:||0.045|